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Calm and Chaos in Fantasy Suburbia

Onward, Onward press day

Posted by Simoa • February 12, 2020

The creation of Onward’s suburban fantasy world was a lot more deliberate than you might expect. Of course Pixar films are always the result of years’ worth of research and minute attention to detail, but it all looks so effortless. How hard could it be to populate ordinary neighborhoods with centaurs and trolls? Actually it was quite challenging, building a world both old and new at the same time. Here’s a rundown of how the crew in art, layout, editing, and lighting rose to the challenge.

Art – Noah Klocek, production designer 

visual development art by Chris Sasaki

One of the challenges with Onward was making fantasy creatures in a modern setting acceptable to an audience. This was achieved by making the world’s familiar elements much greater than the fantastical ones. Percentage wise, it was 70% familiar, 30% fantasy. The juxtaposition of those two elements were also represented by two more key concepts: chaos and order. And those concepts were further embodied by our main characters, Ian and Barley. 

The suburb itself was inspired by the Midwest, specifically where Dan Scanlon grew up. The array of fantasy creatures and elements were made to resemble what Dan called a “sticker book/trapper keeper fantasy.” The film’s brightly colored posters definitely pay homage to that aesthetic. And the film overall is meant to appeal to fantasy lovers and non lovers alike. 

Layout – Adam Habib 

Technical aspects were also employed to reinforce the film’s blend of chaos and order. Two types of camera styles were assigned to the Lightfoot brothers: a normal one for Ian that was closer to a human perspective with a restrained movement; and a mix of wide and long lenses for Barley that felt more unpredictable. Because magic is also unpredictable, it’s difficult for the camera to keep up with it. This is similar to how Ian reacts to magic, and by extension, the audience. 

PROGRESSION IMAGE 3 of 6: CAMERA AND STAGING – The Camera and Staging team (sometimes known by its traditional name, Layout) uses the principles of cinematography and film language to translate each moment from the hand-drawn storyboards into the three-dimensional cinematic shots that make up the finished film. This team determines the composition of each frame, as well as the choreography of camera and character movement (known as Staging) within the virtual sets. They work closely with the Director and the Editorial teams to determine the right timing and sequence of shots to best communicate the story. © 2019 Disney/Pixar. All Rights Reserved.

Not all of the magic in Onward is chaotic however. Wizard magic belongs in this category, with its dynamic and graceful camera movements. That’s what Barley idolizes and what Ian tries to master.

Editing – Catherine Apple

The editing department spends the most time on the film, anywhere from three to five years. With Onward, it was four years. The first step in the process involves the storyboards. They are broken down into sequences with temporary dialogue. In the early stages before the principal cast was announced or involved, Dan Scanlon voiced Ian.

ONWARD – Storyboards by Kristen Lester and Le Tang. © 2019 Disney/Pixar. All Rights Reserved.

After the storyboard sequences, sound effects are added. The effects are so integral to the editing process and they all have to be created. Examples include ambient sounds, dogs barking, and a car engine. A vast sound effects library at Pixar certainly helps! Since Guinevere the van is Barley’s mighty “steed,” the car engine roars to life with a horse’s whinny. Then a temporary score is added along with the sound effects to scenes with dialogue. Sound effects also reflect chaos and order: controlled sounds and dialogue for Ian, while Barley’s dialogue is often very fast and overlapping with other sounds. He also got the louder sound effects. 

Lighting – Jonathan Pytko, lighting supervisor 

As expected of Pixar films, the lighting is one of the most compelling visual elements. The goal here was to tell the story through light and color. The familiar part of Onward is made up of funny and heartfelt moments that are meant to evoke comfort and warmth. These scenes also help the audience grow accustomed to the world. The fantasy is much more mysterious, saturated with deeper colors, as in the scene where Ian and Barley use the conjuring spell. 

PROGRESSION IMAGE 5 of 6: LIGHTING – The Lighting department helps to integrate all of the elements – characters, sets, effects, etc. – into a final, fully visually realized image. The Lighting process involves placing virtual light sources into the scene to illuminate the characters and the set. Technical artists place the lights to draw the audience’s eye to story points and to create a specific mood. The lit images are then rendered at high resolution. © 2019 Disney/Pixar. All Rights Reserved.

Onward‘s visual language is very rich, and deeply informed by specificity. It’ll be a treat to watch the entire film next month and pay attention to all these details.

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Toy Story 4’s Oscar win

Jonas Rivera, Josh Cooley, Mark Nielsen, Oscars, Randy Newman, Toy Story 4

Posted by Simoa • February 11, 2020

Toy Story 4 won Best Animated at the Oscars on Sunday! I know I’m a bit late, but I didn’t actually catch the ceremony until after this award was handed out. It was surprising, which I know is a little weird considering that Pixar is usually the favorite, but I genuinely did not expect it to win. Missing Link and Klaus seemed like the major contenders, especially since the former won the Golden Globe. The film is Pixar’s 10th win, but a first for Josh Cooley and producer Mark Nielsen, and Jonas Rivera’s second (Inside Out being his first).

Mindy Kaling presented the award, which was more than fitting considering she starred in Inside Out, and you can even see how warmly she greeted Jonas.

“We take great pride in the fact that we get to make family films. Toy Story 4 is really a love letter to our families, for our parents, our wives, and for our kids.” – Jonas Rivera

“We want to thank the moviegoing audience […] especially those who grew up with Toy Story. We hope that your adventures with Woody and Buzz made growing up a little bit easier. -Josh Cooley

You can also watch Randy Newman’s performance of the Best Original Song nominee, “I Can’t Let You Throw Yourself Away.” It was just wonderful, him seated at the piano surrounded by those iconic white clouds! Newman is 76 years old for what it’s worth, and he’s still amazing. I also loved when the camera cut to Jonas Rivera giving Newman a hearty standing ovation at the song’s conclusion.

Check out some more great photos from Oscars night:

US-ENTERTAINMENT-FILM-OSCARS-SHOW

Congratulations to Josh, Mark, Jonas, and the entire cast and crew!

 

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New film still and new insight into Soul

Pete Docter, Soul

Posted by Simoa • January 22, 2020

Pete Docter’s Soul bears some resemblance to Inside Out with its abstract concept, but the two films have another connection. Speaking with Empire, the director gave further insight into what his newest film is all about. As it turns out, Joe Gardner’s journey after his death is to The Great Before, defined as a place where people get their personalities. I can’t help but be reminded of the beginning of Inside Out, where Riley greets the world and her parents as a newborn baby. As Docter noted,

“The instant my kids were born, they seemed to have a very specific, unique personality; this is a deep dive into why that’s the case.”

I love that Docter is drawing inspiration from his children once again for this latest exploration into the human experience. I also wonder exactly how he thinks their personalities were fixed from the moment they were born. Maybe that’s something only parents can understand. Regardless, Soul, in theaters on June 19th, will be a film for everyone. Check out the exclusive new film still.

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Looping through colors and sounds

SparkShorts

Posted by Simoa • January 21, 2020

When “Loop” premiered on Disney+ a few weeks ago, I watched it three times in a row. (As of this posting, my view count is now at five). It’s the first Pixar release of 2020, and I can’t think of a better one to hold that distinction. It represents another first as well: one of the protagonists is autistic and nonverbal. Her name is Renee. I remember really liking her design the first time I saw the poster last year. All that hair!

“Loop” is Pixar’s second SparkShort about autism, but this time, there are no metaphors or magic. Renee’s autism isn’t portrayed as a mysterious gift. This short is extraordinarily simple – we spend one bright and sunny afternoon with two teenagers in a canoe. Marcus is Renee’s partner. He is not autistic and seems nice enough, although he is reluctant to be paired off with Renee, referring to her as “that girl who doesn’t talk.” Their continuous loop around the lake is fairly uneventful at first, but that’s why I find it so compelling. It’s just two kids with vastly different experiences of the world learning to communicate with one another.

Also available on Disney+ is “The Making of Loop.” It details how the filmmakers, led by director Erica Milsom, worked with The Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring this story faithfully to the screen. One way they achieved authenticity was with the casting of Madison Bandy, a nonverbal autistic actress, as Renee. Girls are largely under diagnosed with autism, and we might be tempted to associate it with boys only. But for a Pixar film to center a nonwhite autistic girl is really making strides in the realm of representation for both the studio and media in a broader sense. It’s also cool that both characters in “Loop” are nonwhite, with Marcus having dark brown skin.

It’s evident just how passionate Milsom and her team were to tell this story in such an honest way. Marcus is well intentioned, but his plans go awry, and he becomes frustrated. He doesn’t know how to communicate with Renee, but he does give her some space. He learns to be patient. We’re able to sympathize with him. Not once are we meant to pity Renee; rather we identify with her; see and hear the world through her eyes and ears. A great moment in “Loop” occurs when Marcus tells her, “I hear you.” Just because she can’t talk doesn’t mean we shouldn’t listen.

One of my nieces is on the autism spectrum, and she struggled a lot with sensory overload when she was younger. That scene in the short where Renee claps her hands to her ears was so immediately recognizable to me, because my niece would always do the same when she was overwhelmed by noise. I am not autistic, but Renee hiding under the canoe was deeply relatable to me. I’ve never done that, but I understand the need to. The comfort she draws from listening to her ringtone, a continuous looping sound, is also something I could relate to: I’ve listened to the same song on repeat when I need comfort, or need to calm myself down.

“Loop” just radiates so much compassion, color, and warmth.

“Loop” is dedicated to Adam Burke, who also has a story credit on the film. Read this Forbes interview with Milsom and producers Michael Warch and Krissy Cababa for more insight on this beautiful little story.

Click the banner below for more of our SparkShorts reviews. 

 

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The Non Magical Quest for Onward’s Story

Behind The Scenes, Dan Scanlon, Interview, Onward, Onward press day

Posted by Simoa • January 14, 2020

 “If something has happened to you, and you have real questions about it, chances are people in the world are gonna have similar questions even if they don’t have the same story.” 

-Dan Scanlon

That bit of insight perfectly encapsulates Pixar’s films and according to Dan, are also why they have stood the test of time. He added that the new SparkShorts program allows filmmakers to tell stories that are unlike anything the studio has done before. Onward, his second directorial feature, is yet another Pixar first. 

I was so fortunate to visit Pixar for the third time last October to learn about the making of the film and to cross paths with more passionate storytellers. One of my favorite things about this event was the filmmaker conference with Dan Scanlon and producer Kori Rae.

The Onward Long Lead press days, including a press conference with Kori Rae and Dan Scanlon, as seen on October 30, 2019 at Pixar Animation Studios in Emeryville, Calif. (Photo by Deborah Coleman / Pixar)

The two have a genuine camaraderie that makes them a winning director-producer duo, and it’s no surprise that they teamed up once again after Monsters University in 2013. One other MU alum on Onward is story supervisor Kelsey Mann. We got to see a photo of the trio on Day 1 of Onward, where there was just a single lonely post-it on a big stretch of whiteboard. As Dan recalled: “It’s just so tricky to come up with something from nothing. Kelsey and Kori and I went back on that first day and I don’t know what we did other than pin up that one thing and it’s terrifying.” His words echoed Kelsey’s about the terror of a blank page. 

The Onward Long Lead press days, including Madeline Sharafian and Kelsey Mann, as seen on October 29, 2019 at Pixar Animation Studios in Emeryville, Calif. (Photo by Marc Flores / Pixar)

But of course, that page is filled eventually, and Dan is helped by a team of dedicated story artists, led by Kelsey. In a presentation with him and one of the story leads Maddie Sharafian, we learned all about the storyboarding process for Onward. After clearing the initial hurdle of the blank page, the fear began to dissipate. As Kelsey noted, he and Kori Rae were there to help Dan through the process, which Dan was quite vulnerable about:

It’s a really scary thing and it’s a very private and lonely thing, even though you do have a lot of help, you do have to dig into yourself and your life and talk to people, talk to your friends…it’s like therapy.”

Kelsey Mann’s involvement at the start of the project is actually unusual. Most of the time, it’s just the director or the director and the producer in the early stages of the film. The three of them were joined by a handful of others to put the story up in cards and just talk through the scenes and story beats. Dan and his co-writer Jason Headley wrote a script which was then handed to the story artists. They all read it individually and then came together as a group to discuss what worked and offer critiques about what didn’t. When a scene is finished, the temporary voices are added, and it’s sent to editorial, which mixes in the sound effects and music. Now the artist’s initial pitch is strengthened by the music and atmosphere. 

Screenings are held for 35-40 scenes in the studio’s theater, and there are brain trust screenings for the crew, along with people who aren’t working on the film. And what’s really cool is that people will help out on the ideas for the film even if they’re working on other projects. The collaborative spirit really does animate the studio’s artists. 

But the real exciting part of this whole process are the storyboards. We actually got to see them for one scene in the film! And this was after the film screening we had viewed with all the finished animation. The boards were just as compelling. For the film crew, watching each artist’s storyboard pitch is similar to watching the actual movie. Kelsey described it as a play with multiple people presenting the scenes they worked on in succession. 

It’s definitely quite a challenge to find the right story, but what I really appreciated learning about this process was how certain decisions strengthened the story and the journey of Ian and Barley. We got to see how the story artists think through those decisions, with their writing and drawings. Kelsey and Maddie actually demonstrated for us how they do this by drawing on their iPads so we could see how the storyboarded scene was edited. A tiny glimpse into one of Pixar’s story rooms!

Onward story team members, including Madeline Sharafian, Louise Smythe and Rosana Sullivan, work in the “fishbowl,” a common work space for everyone to be together while working, as seen on November 8, 2016 at Pixar Animation Studios in Emeryville, Calif. (Photo by Deborah Coleman / Pixar)

 

Onward story team members work in the “fishbowl,” a common work space for everyone to be together while working, as seen on November 8, 2016 at Pixar Animation Studios in Emeryville, Calif. (Photo by Deborah Coleman / Pixar)

Dan also praised Onward’s story artists for their ability to understand Ian, who was a tough character to figure out. Because he’s so much more comfortable in the background, it was difficult for the team to find something ‘playable’ that they could all work on. He mentioned how a story artist was able to turn Art from Monsters University into a character everyone was familiar with, all thanks to the iconic line, “I can’t go back to jail!” For Ian, “It wasn’t until we got to the more blundering awkward stuff that Tom Holland does so well, that we said ‘he’s all of our horrible 16 year old selves’; all of us artists who want to hide and not be seen; he’s every awkward moment you’ve ever had embodied in a character and then he’s also the opposite of Barley. Barley is super confident and wild, he’s everything we wish we were in some way.”

Speaking of Barley, we even got to draw him with some help from Maddie!

The Onward Long Lead press days, including Madeline Sharafian and Kelsey Mann, as seen on October 30, 2019 at Pixar Animation Studios in Emeryville, Calif. (Photo by Deborah Coleman / Pixar)

 

Now you may be wondering how certain story elements are kept or discarded. Although Dan and Kori joked that he ultimately had the final say, his answer reflected a lot of thoughtfulness and humility. 

“…what makes it really hard is that everyone here is very smart and are all great filmmakers and I respect their opinion and that makes it difficult to make a choice because it’s not like I go, ‘hmph, that person’s wrong!’ I usually think ‘Wow, why are they saying that? There’s gotta be a good reason for that.’”

“It’s amazing how open Dan is and everyone is during the process because we really just want to make the best choices for the film. There are times we will debate things and we’ll leave a review. Afterwards people will go up and … [say] I’m still not sure about this decision and we will keep talking about it. That’s all we do all day long is make choices and decisions and try to move everything forward. It’s fun, it’s great, but we really do try to listen for the best idea, the thing that’s really best for the film. Dan is incredibly open. If anybody is questioning any decision that we make, we encourage them to talk to us about it. We’ve changed our minds on stuff.” – Kori Rae

While the story underwent many revisions, the core of it remained unchanged. It was always going to be a deeply personal film for Dan, one that still allows audiences to connect with it, even if they don’t share his experiences. 

Stay tuned, because more posts on this film awaiteth!

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The second official Onward trailer is here!

Onward, Trailer

Posted by Simoa • December 17, 2019

Holy Tooth of Zadar! What a marvelous two minutes and 25 seconds it is!

There’s even a new poster too.

I can’t say anything just yet about the Onward screening I attended back in October, but would you believe that this new trailer inspired the same emotions in me? Mostly awe tinged with sadness. My eyes started welling up, and I’ve watched the trailer three times already. Imagine how much of a mess I’ll be when the actual movie is released!

This new footage reveals quite a bit more, but much of the plot mystery remains intact. Some of the new footage includes the Manticore sending Ian and Barley on their quest. It turns out the mighty and fearsome creature has evolved into a frazzled restaurant manager. And while manticores are usually depicted with the face of a man, Corey the Manticore Manager, is a woman!

Corey however, forgot to warn Ian and Barley about the curse, so now the Lightfoot brothers are in mortal peril! Their mother Laurel sets out after them, and we even get to see her wield a sword! Not since Brave in 2012 have we had a Pixar mom play a vital role and carry a sword!

I found my favorite character. Did I mention she has a sword?

We also see one of the newly unveiled characters from yesterday, Colt Bronco, attempting to escort Ian and Barley home in a police cruiser. There’s a lot of action sequences, but none of it overwhelms.

But it’s not all high speed car chases, sword wielding moms, fire breathing dragons, and tough biker pixies; there’s tender scenes too, and even a baby picture of Ian and Barley.

It’s clear from this trailer and the screening from a few weeks ago that Onward will have quieter moments. Considering the themes of death and grieving, that’s only to be expected. I’m anticipating how the filmmakers strike a balance between this wild fantasy world and the more familiar, human aspects. All while being uproariously funny and sad.

The trailer also treats us to stunning scenery, colors, backgrounds, and landscapes. I’m swooning just thinking of that color script.


Onward will be in theaters in almost three! months – March 6, 2020.

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Float: a magical story of acceptance

Bobby Rubio, Disney+, Float, SparkShorts

Posted by Simoa • December 15, 2019

Please don’t ask if I have a favorite SparkShort. I just can’t choose. (Maybe it’s “Kitbull.” But again, don’t ask)! But if you asked me which one is the most special to me, I’d have to choose “Float.” That’s the one I was lucky enough to watch in Pixar’s beautiful theater, where the ceiling glitters with gold stars. In fact, I was so excited about the prospect of seeing any one of the SparkShorts on a big screen that I gasped aloud when it was announced. And I was sitting in the front row, so Chris Wiggum, our host that night, heard and immediately singled me out. One of my finer moments, to be sure! 

The SparkShorts series came at a pivotal moment in Pixar’s history. At a time when Hollywood at large has reckoned with abuses of power, Pixar has had to do the same. This short film program aims to level the playing field by giving opportunities to diverse voices behind the camera. “Float” was the first to premiere on Disney+ a few weeks ago, and it was also the first thing I watched when I downloaded the app. Nothing could replace the experience of seeing it in Pixar’s theater, but I just had to watch it over and over, and be enveloped by all the emotions it stirred in me. 

“Float” is story artist Bobby Rubio’s first directorial effort. He’s Filipino, as are the characters in the short. In fact, it’s a deeply personal project inspired by Rubio’s relationship with his son. “Float” opens on a warm and golden afternoon. A father and his son enjoy the beautiful day, with the little boy taking a few wobbly steps. As the father blows on a dandelion, the delighted boy breaks into a smile and floats in the air. It’s a moment of innocent magic, and by that point, I was already in love. I just expected to be smiling contentedly for the rest of it, soaking up the warmth.

But then two parents pass by with their daughter, and their reaction to the boy in the air is one of confusion and alarm. That was the moment that my warm and fuzzy bubble burst. Uh, what’s the matter with these people? I thought. This boy can fly! The father did not share my feelings. He grabs his son from the air and holds onto him, retreats into their house, away from the neighbors’ stares. 

The interior of the house is gray and drab, the golden haze gone. The years have passed and the little boy is a bit older now, drawing on the ceiling since he can float up there. His father is grim faced with lanky long hair and a beard. It’s clear that he hasn’t shaved or gotten a haircut in quite a while. He’s also frustrated by his son’s unique ability. He grabs him out of the air and places a backpack loaded with rocks onto him so he’ll remain on the ground. That’s his way of achieving some sort of “normalcy.” 

But his son doesn’t stay earthbound for very long. Despite his father’s best efforts, he still continues to soar. 

I had suspected that “Float” was a metaphor for autism. Bobby Rubio confirmed it for us during a panel with the SparkShorts filmmakers, and hearing him describe his experiences raising his son, struggling to accept his differences, made me choke up just as much as I did watching the short. “Float” may be about a father learning to accept his son, but I found another meaning in it. Autism is so misunderstood, and “Float” doesn’t shy away from that reality. But it also presents it as something magical like flying. Isn’t that amazing? This thing that makes you different, that other people find weird, is actually wonderful. It could be autism or anything else, and that’s also what makes “Float” so significant.

There’s just one line of dialogue spoken, and it’s devastating; I’d rank it up there with some of the most heart wrenching moments in Pixar’s full length films. That’s one of the things I love about these SparkShorts: they tell a lot of story in such a brief amount of time, and none of the poignancy is lost. 

Be sure to watch the The Making of Float, also on Disney+. There’s some beautiful concept art and more background on the short.

 

Click the banner below for all of our SparkShorts reviews.

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The bleak immigration story in Wind

Short Film, SparkShorts

Posted by Simoa • December 14, 2019

Pixar’s latest SparkShort is now streaming on Disney+. “Wind” is a tale unlike any other at the studio. Of course we watch Pixar films expecting to cry, but rarely do they leave us so winded (pun not intended) without the promise of a happy ending. Toy Story 4 was the first to end on a bittersweet note, but the ending to “Wind” is actually heartbreaking.

The short begins with warm lighting that envelopes the characters, a young boy and his grandmother, in soft, gold light. It’s comforting. But that warmth just vanishes when they step outside. The two of them live in a vast ruin of darkness with massive boulders and debris floating through the air. It’s mostly gray out there; cold and harsh.

I was wondering throughout how this cavernous landfill came to exist, and why these two people should be living on such inhospitable terrain. Those questions weren’t answered but that doesn’t matter: this is a place no one should call home. And so, the boy and his grandmother collect the floating trash as they build a rocket to escape.

Brilliant touches abound in “Wind.” The visual storytelling communicates a wealth of emotions and the tenderness between grandma and grandson without dialogue. I’m sure it qualifies as a silent film, as do the majority of Pixar’s shorts. The visuals are also stunning even in this colorless and bleak environment. The story is one that will resonate with so many real world families making their journeys to a better life. “Wind” is a fantasy that nevertheless reflects the harsh realities of immigration. It’s the kind of story that could be told in a full length feature, but the runtime is one of its strengths. It’s no small feat to tell a meaningful story in ten minutes or less, especially one with protagonists enduring hardship.

“Wind” was directed by Edwin Chang, a simulation technical director. His family’s experiences inspired the short, which echoes other directors and their projects at the studio. The personal always lends these films even more potency. You can read a brief interview with Chang and producer Jesus Martinez at SFGate

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Pixar debuts a new Onward still

Onward

Posted by Simoa • December 11, 2019

At Brazil’s Comic Con Experience (CCXP) over the past weekend, attendees were treated to clips of Onward. Deadline reports that one bit of new footage was screened, where Ian and Barley meet biker pixies, who have only appeared briefly in the film’s trailer. Check out the latest image of the elf brothers below.

Dan Scanlon also spoke some more about the film’s inspiration, which he drew from his own experience. Ian and Barley growing up without their father mirrors Scanlon and his older brother as well. They were both still babies when their father passed away, so neither remember him. But they were able to hear their father’s voice on a recording, which was also played at CCXP. Scanlon described it as magical. So it’s no wonder that there’s a scene in the film of Ian listening to his father’s voice on a cassette tape. It’s so lovely that Scanlon could hold onto that memory and build an entire film around it.

Onward cometh to theaters on March 6, 2020.

 

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Toy Story 4 gets a Golden Globe nomination + more!

Annie Awards, Golden Globes, Toy Story 4

Posted by Simoa • December 10, 2019

If you missed the announcement of the Golden Globe nominees, fear not! We did too, but we are here finally, to talk a little about the Globes and the other nominations Pixar has received. Toy Story 4 was of course, one of three animated sequels released in 2019; it has strong competition in How To Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World and Frozen 2. While the other nominees are grand in scale, Toy Story 4 was the much more intimate and simple movie, but still an event as the other two. And seeing how it dominated the box office, it was a huge deal for a little movie.

The Annie Awards also announced their 2019 nominees. Toy Story 4 is up for:

  • Best Feature
  • Best FX for Feature
  • Best Music – Feature for Randy Newman
  • Best Voice Acting for Tony Hale (go, Forky!)
  • Best Writing
  • Best Editorial

While I am a bit surprised and disappointed that the film didn’t earn any nominations for storyboard, character design/animation, or direction, it is still being recognized in multiple categories. I thought Pixar’s SparkShorts might also be contenders, but maybe they don’t qualify. If any of our readers have more information on that, do let us know.

Congratulations to Josh Cooley and the crew! You can read all about my visit to Pixar where I learned how Toy Story 4 was created here.

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